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How to light your home with LED bulbs?

How to light your home with LED bulbs?

What are LED bulbs?, What about this technology?, How do they work?, What is the equivalent consumption and lighting with the traditional one?, What is the color temperature? European differences regarding China? The following article will answer all your questions and resolve your doubts, as always with an entertaining and easy to understand text to ultimately decide the best option for your home and have the decision criteria, to the most suitable products.

What is a LED?

While a standard bulb has a life of 5.000 hours, the lifetime of an LED is over 100.000 hours of light; we’re talking about 11 years of continuous light emission.

But, how does the LED really work? It functions essentially on the principle enunciated by Albert Einstein in his day whereby some materials when subjected to an electric current, generate light. The base of the LED lighting technology is based on the diode; this is an electronic component that allows two ends current flow through it in only one direction.

The light emitting diodes (LED) are semiconductors. When electrons pass through this type of semiconductor light becomes. Compared with incandescent bulbs, LED lights are more efficient at converting energy into light. And it is for this reason that if we play less heat than other bulbs. In fact I would say that the current incandescent bulbs are actually a resistance that to be traversed by a current dissipate heat, thus producing enlightenment, as a side effect. 80% of the energy of incandescent bulbs is used to produce heat. In the LED current is used to produce light at approximately 90%.

LEDs have a structure in which four basic components can highlight. On the one hand would emitter semiconductor material, which is mounted on a chip – reflector. The types of materials used in doped silicon determine the color of light. After the drivers have pins, the cathode and anode, and the lead wire through which the two poles are brought together. The fourth element is a lens that protects the LED emitting material.

By passing electricity through one of these diodes, the atoms are excited at a high level. Then store a large amount of energy and need to eject.

The LED is operating on DC power in a range of between 10mA and 300mA depending on the type of LED and voltage levels, between 2.5V and 35V respectively.

What is a LED bulb?

It is an association in series of LEDs and more parallel associations branches of the previous series. The number of LEDs that comprises an LED lamp is described on the reference. For example the following model Led Lamp:

E27 LED 69SMD5730 11W

It indicates a E27 cap, it’s a LED lamp, which consists of 69 LEDs SMD type (the LED does not SMD already in disuse and are not as efficient), model led is 5730 and that the power of the lamp LED (which is not consumed) is 11W. Later we will see this in more detail.

The LED bulb consumes 25% of what an incandescent bulb, and turn on instantly, no delays. We can say without mistake much to have a lighted LED bulb 11W 6 hours, equivalent to having lit traditional bulb 60W, 1 hour. Over the advantage of selecting the lighting color and not heat the room and you do not burn to catch.

In leds, we spoken of 3 groups of color temperature

The color temperature of a light source is defined by comparing its color within the visible spectrum of light that emit a black body heated to a certain temperature. Therefore this color temperature is expressed in kelvin, although not explicitly reflect a measure of temperature, to be the same only a relative measure.

TemperaturaColor_EN

The scientific explanation is: A theoretical body called black body which does not absorb or reflect any light frequency, is able to radiate light with increasing temperature. At each temperature to which said body is hot emit a certain wavelength (color) that has a maximum energy. That would be the color temperature. The closest to said body are stars, but they absorb a certain amount of light of various colors depending on composition. In fact , analyzing the color spectrum of light emitted by a star, you can find out its temperature and composition based on absent on the same lines.

Though apparently all light sources are white, this is merely an adaptation that makes our brain, which in this sense behaves similarly mode “auto white balance” of some digital cameras and camcorders. Sometimes you can see the different colors of light sources if we put different types of bulbs, fluorescent or halogen together. Yes, then we clearly noticed that while all light, each light source appears as a different color. A practical consequence in the daily life of all this have on the clothing stores, where same garment may appear different color inside the store (artificial lighting, with a particular color temperature) and outside (sunlight, with a different temperature). And it is precisely in photography for fashion catalogs and industry where more accurate color reproduction is measured by adjusting the color temperature of the outlet, to avoid “false ” colors.

The unit of measurement is the Kelvin (K), sometimes called Kelvin, and is derived from the theory explained above about colors appear on heating an ideal body, and according to the temperature reached radiates some or other colors. While the human brain balances light sensors of digital cameras and photographic film with palpable differences recorded what is really happening with lighting.

  • Warm White: (Color temperatures between 2800ºK and 3500ºK). Corresponds to the light producing incandescent bulbs and halogen bulbs. It is recommended in shops , fruit shops , bakeries , delis and butchers (the latter 2 is more common even a light pink tone). In the case of housing , it is recommended installation in rooms such as the living room.
  • Neutral White: (Color temperatures between 3800ºK and 4500ºK) experts say it is the most natural light. It can be installed in any environment that does not require the specific hue that can bring the other 2 categories.
  • Cool/Pure White: (Color temperatures of more than 5000ºK). Corresponds to the light of a sunny or cloudy day. One advantage of the cool light is the same intensity that brings greater amount of lumens which generates a higher perceived brightness. It is a highly recommended fishmongers and jewelry light. Regarding housing is usually found in kitchens and bathrooms. Although the experts in makeup always recommend warm lights as they have the advantage of providing color temperatures, than have the advantage of providing an improved color gamut.

Units and measures

The various units of measure and the others are equivalent to the following (simplified and only applied to the lighting so):

  • 1 lux = 1 lm/m2.
  • 1 FC = 10,764 lux.
  • Lux range, to get an idea of their values: 0.1lux >= luminous flux< = 200000lux (direct sunlight in summer) LEd SMD lumens = 60lm*WLED.
  • The English system unit FC (foot-candles) is used: Then 1 foot candle (FC) = lumens per square foot. I mean: 1 lm/0,0929 m2 = 10,764 lux.

Tipos de LED en iluminación

SMD LED   Dimension Power Flux  Intensity Beam angle HeatsinK Notes 
Module mm x mm Watt. max.   Lumen    candela degree yes/no  
5730 5.7 x 3.0 0.5 47-56 15-18 120 no
5630 5.6 x 3.0 0.5 57 18.4 120 no Iavg=100mA
5050 5.0 x 5.0 0.2 16-18 5.1-5.75 120 no it has  3 leds 3528
2835 2.8 x 3.5 0.2 24-26 8.4-9.1 120 yes Iavg=60mA
3528 3.5 x 2.8 0.1 6 3 120 no
3258 3.2 x 5.8 0.2 15-18 5-6 120 no
3020 3.0 x 2.0 0.06 8 2.5 120 no
3014 3.0 x 1.4 0.11 6-11 2.1-3.5 120 yes

 

Equivalence of consumption of different technologies

Incandescent (W) Halogen(W) Led(W)
 30 25 3
 40  —  4.8
 60  50  8
 75  60  11

 

TECHNOLOGY AHS laboratory measurements of different LED lamps

Type of Lamp Current Power Lumens
GU10 halógena 50W I=212mA P=50W lm=750
E27 Incandescente 60W I=263mA P=60W lm=600
E27 Incandescente 100W I=439mA P=100W lm=1000
GU10 LED 6W   V=235.5V I=44.9mA/42.5mA P=10W
E27 LED 11W    V=235.5V I=42.4mA P=10W
E14 LED 4.8W (VLEd=6.9V)   V=235.5V I=38.3mA (ILEd=38.3mA) P=9W (PLEd=0.2622W)
G9  104 LED 7W,,  V=235.5V I=34mA P=8W
G9  64 LED 5W,,    V=235.5V I=35mA P=8.24W
G4  15 LED 4W,,   V=12V I=166mA P=2W

 

Theoretical/comparative practices based on laboratory measurements several LED lamps

Type of Lamp Color Temp. Lumens Duration Real consumption
GU10 LED 29-5050 6W Pure White(6000-6500K) lm=600 50.000h 10W
E27 LED 69SMD5730 11W Cool White(6000K-6500K) lm=1100 15.000h 10W
E14 LED 14SMD2835 4.8W Warm White(3300K) lm=380lm/45mA 25.000h 9W
G9 LED  104SMD3014 7W Cool white(6500-7000K) lm=104*6=624lm min 50.000h 8W
G9 LED  64SMD3014 5W Cool white(6000-6500K) lm=64*6=384lm min 50.000h 8.24W
G4 LED  15SMD5630 2W Pure White(6000-6500K) lm=330-360 15.000h 2W

 

Lighting levels recommended by Lux areas and places in residential use

We report here, the recommended levels for home. For other areas such as shops, schools we recommend the following article: Recommended levels of illumination áreas

Stays:

  • Kitchen: General lighting 300 lux and the area to cut and prepared 500-600.
  • Bath: General lighting 200 lux, makeup or shave: 300-500.
  • Bedroom: General Illumination 100-200 lux and 500 if read.
  • Nurseries: General lighting lux 200-300, 500-750 where do manual labor.
  • Living room: General lighting 100 lux, to watch TV and read 500 50-70.
  • Stairs: General lighting minimum 100 lux.

Common zones:

  • Lifts, Interior: 300-500 lux
  • Landings: 50-250 lux
  • Stairs: 100-300 lux

Buy in Europe or China

China is by far the largest exporter of LED bulbs. With over 4300 suppliers on Alibaba.com listed, find the right LED bulbs manufacturer in China can be a challenge to say the least. While related providers, such as LED displays, are highly concentrated in a specific city or region (eg Shenzhen), manufacturers of LED bulbs products are scattered throughout the east coast of China.

However, over 85 % of those registered in China as manufacturers of LED bulbs companies are located in the southern province of Guangdong and Zhejiang in the east. If you plan to fly and visit some manufacturers on their own, there are certain cities you should go:

  • Shenzhen, Province Guangdong     (Products from here are very satisfactory)
  • Guangzhou, Province Guangdong
  • Zhongshan, Province Guangdong
  • Ningbo, Province Zhejiang
  • Hangzhou, Province Zhejiang

Electronic manufacturing (without increasing the defect rate) requires a degree of sophistication by the supplier. In a perfect world, you could take this for granted when buying in China. But as you guessed, this is not the case. There is not much difference between LED lighting manufacturers, both in terms of quality and trust management.

Certifications required in the European Union.

LED bulbs require compliance with CE mark directive when they are imported to any member state of the European Union. Few manufacturers of LED bulbs are able to manufacture LED bulbs that meet CE.

If comply with CE among while comply with CE between the LED suppliers in China is more widespread than in some other industries, it fulfilled before can be a disastrous move. That is why it is useless to focus on a long negotiating price with a supplier before determining If unable or unwilling to comply.

There is a tendency among Chinese lighting manufacturers allow low-volume orders. This is indeed a welcome development, but there are reasons for caution. Low volume orders are possible due to mass production which then makes available the ready products. The problem with this is that many of the bulbs that are available ready to buy are focused on the Chinese domestic market. So, why is that a problem? Because, a LED bulb that is made for the Chinese market is not manufactured to comply with the CE mark.

If you are buying a Chinese LED lamp ensure that carries the CE mark. With this brand can already be sure to use it in Europe.

The advantages of buying in China are:

  • Price with much cheaper than in Europe freight (save up to 50%) because you eliminate the middlemen.
  • Variety of products. There are models that are not in Europe and if in China.
  • The technology of LED and lamp in their manufacturing process requires high standards of quality, since the LED is a semiconductor component. All that may be of poor quality housing are materials and metals, but these in an LED bulb are secondary.
  • At the time of purchase if there is a malfunction respond, giving back (refund) your money.

Drawbacks:

  • It takes from 2 weeks to a month to arrive for the delay of postage.

Order Tracking

You can follow any order of Chinese at the following website: http://www.17track.net/en/ and there he put the tracking reference you’ve been given in the order they are usually the type eg: RS206955179NL and CRI319952704CN.

This post was written by:

Antonio Hurtado

- who has written 16 posts on Red Solar España | AHS Technology S.L..

I am Spanish industrial engineer, electronics engineer and programmer. CEO & Co-Founder of AHS Technology. I am currently living and working in the beautiful city of Granada, where are the company headquartered. I have worked in several companies like chips manufacturing, renewable energy and industrial automation. My skills are the production of energy from renewable sources, power electronics and multimedia technologies.

Contact the autor or View all posts by Antonio Hurtado

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